Fileteado porteño, cultural symbol of Buenos Aires
Fileteado porteño is a form of popular art that originated in the city of Buenos Aires at the turn of the 20th century. Fileteado and tango are the two cultural symbols that represent the city by the River Plate. They appeared roughly at the same time, originated in the immigrant communities and influenced one another. Sadly, there aren’t enough records of their history and development.
Until the early 20th century, city regulations required that delivery carts be painted grey. One day, the exact date in unknown, three employees at a cart manufacturing company decided to paint fine red lines along the bevels of a cart.
Apparently, this caught on, customers liked it and competitors started to do it as well. The original three artists, all Italian immigrants, became emboldened and started to add decorative elements. Flowers, swirls, acanthus leaves or ribbons with the national colours started to creep into the sides of those carts.
With time, and as the popularity of the fileteado increased, artists began to include cultural icons. Thus, legendary tango singer Carlos Gardel or Our Lady of Lujan, as well as phrases of popular wisdom or lines from famous tango songs, became artistic elements used in fileteados.
This tradition carried on even when trucks and buses replaced horse-drawn carts. In 1975, however, the decoration of buses with the fileteado technique was banned. Fileteado was doomed. The economic crisis also had an impact. Bodywork manufacturers closed down and fileteadores, the Spanish name for these artists, lost their jobs. Their art was lost as well as most didn’t pass it on to younger generations.
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Nowadays, fileteado is no longer illegal and most bus companies use some sort of design, albeit simplified and modern. Nowadays, interest in this art form is growing steadily. There are a few artists who now paint on canvas and get commissions for shops signs, for example, seen around the city. Some even make fileteado tattoos!