You probably heard about the Stars and Stripes and the Lone Star Flag, the official flag of the State of Texas. But did you know that six different national flags flew over Texas throughout its history? They were the flags of Spain, France, the United States of Mexico, the Republic of Texas, the Confederate States of America and the United Stated of America.
The six flags appear on the reverse of the Seal of Texas. Furthermore, the slogan is used in a number of businesses, for example as the name of a theme park. The six flags fly in front of welcome centres and in the Bullock Museum in Austin. The six coats of arms, rather than the actual flags, are depicted on the Texas State Capitol’s northern facade.
Let’s go over each one.
The Six Flags Over Texas history
Throughout the history of Texas, the following nations have claimed sovereignty over its territory.
The Kingdom of Spain (1519-1685 and 1690-1821)
The Spaniards occupied what is now Texas in 1519. It was added to the colonial Viceroyalty of New Spain when it was created in 1690. The Crown largely ignored these lands until France became a threat. Then, the Spanish authorities sent expeditions and decided to establish missions from 1716 onward. The ones that remain are on the San Antonio Mission Trail and are a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Kingdom of France (1685-1690)
King Louis XV of France sent and expedition to establish a colony at the mouth of the Mississippi River. The French already had Louisiana and wanted to push west. After five years, the colony failed. The threat spurred the Spanish to secure Texas, and the built missions and colonies all over.
United States of Mexico (1821-1836)
When Mexico gained independence of Spain in 1821. Texas became a part of the fledgling republic. However, there was conflict. American Indians claimed their ancestral lands and the United States were expand south and west. The arrangements with new settlers were fraught with conflict as well. In 1836, Anglo-American and Tejano settlers fought against Mexican rule.
Republic of Texas (1836-1845)
Texas was its own republic between 1836 and 1845. However, a failing economy, political turmoil and conflict with Mexico and American Indians led to Texas joining the United States on December 29, 1845.
Confederate States of America (1861-1865)
In 1861, Texas joined 11 southern slave states to declare secession from the United States. This led to the Civil War of 1861-1865, which the South lost.
United States of America (1845-1861 and 1865-present)
After the South surrendered in 1865, Union troops occupied the territory during Reconstruction. Texas had to meet certain criteria in order to be readmitted into the Union, like a new constitution and equal rights to its citizens. Readmission took place on March 30, 1870